Second visitto England

Because the German authorities weremoving so slowly, Lore again went to England to gain support. The assistantsecretary of the University of Cambridge, J.O.Roach,M.A.  [1] confirmedtheir conversation of the previous day in a letter dated the 16th ofDecember, 1936. Cambridge University would be willing to make arrangements toenter pupils from her school for the examination, provided it met with theapproval of the German Ministry of Education. They would be willing to takeadvice from the Ministry of Education or the University of Berlin regarding thesafe keeping of the examination papers and the supervision during the tests.Once German recognition had been received, the University of Cambridge wouldrecognize her school as an approved school. A copy of this letter was sent toDr.G.Wilmsen of the Anglo-German Academic Bureau at 45 Russel Square, London.Further, Leonore Goldschmidt forwarded this correspondence to the ReichsministerfŸr Wissenschaft (StateMinister for Science) on the 29th of December 1936  [2] with a request that the matter receiveurgent attention. Further she pointed out that, as it would take one year toprepare students for the examination on the 6th of December 1937,permission to employ three English teachers was urgently required especially asa separate submission for the teacher, Mr.Philip Woolley, had been lodgedearlier but had not been granted.

In spite of these official delays,Philip Woolley arrived!  [3]  Havingcompleted his undergraduate education in classics at Oxford University, hedecided on adventure before settling down as a classics master at an EnglishPublic School. He made several inquiries abroad. As a result, the BritishConsul in Berlin informed him of a possible position at the Jewish school ofDr.Leonore Goldschmidt. He decided to explore this. With only a few words ofGerman, he caught the boat train from Victoria Station in late November 1936.But on arrival in Ostend, he accidentally got on the wrong train to Munich. Hesent a telegram to Leonore Goldschmidt saying that he would be arriving laterthan expected at the Anhalter Stra§e Bahnhof (Station) and not the Zoologischer GartenStation as arranged. Onarrival, he found Leonore and Ernst Goldschmidt eagerly awaiting him. WithErnst's classic sense of humour, he informed Woolley, that this was the very firsttime that someone coming from England had arrived at the Anhalter Bahnhof! The joy of Philip Woolley's arrival wasenormous. Looking like the quintessimal English gentleman, with tweed jacketand grey slacks, he charmed all members of the staff and students of theGoldschmidt Schule. He had a beautiful Oxford accent. He became very popular inspite of his lack of German. In fact, it may have been an asset, as it forcedstudents to speak English. The fact that a non-Jewish person had come to jointhe school gave hope and encouragement to all. The author helped to look afterhim, took him to the Christmas market and other entertainments in Berlin which,as a Jewish person, she might not have dared alone. He earned a nickname"Mister", a sign of affection. He started work immediately, selectingthe first set of students to take the "Proficiency in English"examination of Cambridge University, which would take place the following July.


But on the 15th of January1937, Regierungsrat(Counsellor to the Government) Klamroth nearly managed to derail the wholeprocess. In a very nasty internal memo, he asked the fundamental questionwhether a Jewish school should be given the privileges of becoming an EnglishExamination Centre. He suggested that the German High school, the DorotheenState Gymnasium, should be nominated as the centre and that pupils prepared bythe Goldschmidt Schule could sit the examination there. In this way, problemswith the British government could be avoided. He also pointed out that if thisJewish private school were granted permission to hold the Cambridgeexaminations, it would automatically be moved from the Department of Junior andMiddle schools to the Department of High Schools. [4]  

Dr. LeonoreGoldschmidt Schule, a Cambridge University Examination Centre

Then, on the 12th ofFebruary 1937, came a breakthrough. [5]  In an internal memo, the Reichsminister fŸr Wissenschaft (Minister of Science) writing to the Oberpräsident (The Prussian Lord Lieutenant) for HighSchools in Berlin ordered that, following a request by the English Universityof Cambridge, the Dorotheen Realgymnasium and the Dr.Leonore Goldschmidt Schulewould both become examination centres for the University of Cambridge inBerlin, and outside Berlin, both Dr.I.MŸller's private school inMarburg-an-der-Lahn and the Jewish Philantropin in Frankfurt-am-Main wouldbecome examination centres. This permission could be revoked at any time and wasgranted until the 31st of March, 1938 [6] Onthe 19th of February, 1937 Oberschulrat (Chief Inspector of Schools) HŸbner [7] replied to the Stadtpräsident (President of Berlin) that while he was firmlyconvinced that the Dr.Leonore Goldschmidt Schule would be able to meet thestandards required by the University of Cambridge, he doubted that the Directorof the Dorotheen Realgymnasium would welcome the arrangement, as that schoolhad many other commitments, namely an exchange service with the USA plus manyforeign visitors giving interesting lectures. Should the Stadtpräsident (President of Berlin) feel it necessary tohave a second high school as an examination centrum, he would like to be informedof his reasoning. On the 3rd of March, Oberschulrat (Chief Inspector of schools) HŸbner [8]  informed Dr.Leonore Goldschmidt that her school had beenrecognized as the Examination Centre for the University of Cambridge. Thispermission was granted until the 31st of March 1938 and applied to non-Aryanpupils only.

Nevertheless, a handwritten internalmemo, probably from the Reichsminister fŸr Wissenschaft (Minister for Science) himsel[9] circulated on the 25th ofMarch  [10] 1937, stated that the right to hold finalexaminations should not be granted to the Jewish school of Dr. LeonoreGoldschmidt. A reply on 2nd of May from the Stadtpräsident of Berlin  [11] ,as authorized by Oberschulrat HŸbner, informed the Reichsminister fŸr Wissenschaft (Minister for Science) that the Goldschmidtschool had been nominated as an English Examination Centre and asked for thematter to be left there!

Promptly, two further English teachers arrived; Miss Ella Glover to prepare students in Mathematics, a compulsory subject of the Cambridge School Certificate or "O" level examination and Miss Marjorie van Hollick to give instructions in Geography. Ella Glover was a very elegant aloof person. Miss van Hollick, who was older, was a very firm person and steadfastly refused to speak a word of German, forcing students and staff to speak English with her. Lyn Harris, [12] the Headmaster of St.Christopher School, paid a visit to help with the details of the syllabus. He was of great assistance as he was a very experienced headmaster whose school had been taking the Cambridge University examinations for some years. Another teacher, Elliot Pinhey, arrived in June 1937 to teach science in English. He was also a keen entomologist. Philip Wooley, besides taking School Certificate classes, embarked on teaching English history throughout the senior school. Using the text book "Our Island Story" he taught it so effectively that no pupil would ever forget the history of the Saxon kings, Ethelred the Unready, King Alfred burning the pancakes and the burial of some of them in Winchester. Later, when requested, he taught some New Testament courses for the "O" level examination as well. While the first students for Proficiency in English examination hoped to be ready by the summer of 1937, the students for the "O"-level examination would enter it in December 1937.

The fourthbuilding

In the meantime, the total number ofboarders had risen to 42 children. Another house had to be rented for the olderboys. It was Hohenzollendamm 102  [13] .Horst Frank  [14] wrotethat he found a round-letter "An die Eltern " (to all parents), dated March 15th1937, among his father's papers. In it, Lore Goldschmidt explained that due tothe increased costs, a one-time contribution of RM50 for each child was needed,a sum to be returned when the child left the school. To guide theimplementation of this revolving fund an advisory committee of three parentswas elected.

Dr.Walter Bernstein and his wife Eva,who were the original house parents in Kronbergerstrasse 24, moved to Hohenzollerndamm102; Mrs.Marie Dšrnberger, another of Ernst Goldschmidt's cousins, togetherwith Dr.Gertrud Schlesinger, a mathematics teacher, looked after the girls inBerkaer Stra§e, and Dr.Eduard Meissinger and Miss Gerda Levin stayed with thejunior boarders in the Kronberger Stra§e. The fees for boarding were RM150 permonth per child. 

Thequestionnaire 1937

At the end of May 1937, the FragebogenfŸr hšhere Schulen [15] (questionnaire of school statistics forhigh schools) was submitted, reference date the 25th of May 1937.This document comprised 4 pages. The JŸdische Privatschule Dr.LeonoreGoldschmidt was listed as a Reformrealgymnasium with six grades plus a Primary School. 76pupils, about 50% of them boys, were enrolled in the Primary School. 423 pupilswere enrolled in the upper school which made a total of 499 pupils. Consideringthat the school was only two years old, this number of pupils represented anamazing achievement. As the questionnaire had a distinct racial bias, itdemanded both details about religion and race. 11 pupils were listed asProtestant, 1 pupil was Catholic and 7 pupils had no religious affiliation. 440students were listed as Jewish. 56 pupils were listed as stateless and 3 werelisted as part Jewish! Basic fees ranged from RM360 per year increasing toRM420 in the year 0III, RM480 in the class 0IIb, RM660 in the class 0IIa andRM770 in Class I. An interesting comment about these fees came from PeterPrager, who wrote  [16] :"that his father contacted the Goldschmidt Schule after his motherhad refused to send him back to the Grunewald Gymnasium and told Dr.Goldschmidtthat he could not afford the extra fees, to which Dr.Goldschmidt replied justpay whatever you can". The number of teachers had risen to 31, and theyare listed in alphabetical order:

1.     Fritz Amtmann, born on the 11th ofJuly 1909, had just qualified as a sports teacher in Stuttgart and was teachingGymnastics and Sport to the boys, religion Jewish.

2.     Isidor Aschheim, born on the 14th ofOctober 1891, taught Fine Arts, religion Jewish.

3.     Erich Bandmann, Studienrat, born on the 9th of August 1894,had obtained his teaching qualifications in 1921 and 1923 in Berlin. He hadtaught in the public system since 1927 and was teaching Mathematics, Music,Physics and Religion, religion Jewish.

4.     Walter Bernstein, Studienassessor, born on the 30th of January 1905,completed his teaching qualifications in 1932 in Breslau, looked after theboy's boarding house and taught Mathematics, Physics and Gym, religion Jewish.

5.     Ernst Cohn, Middle School Teacher, born 17thof May 1893, completed his qualifications in 1936 in Berlin, taughtGerman, French, Latin and Religion, religion Jewish.

6.     Ella P. Glover, born on the 18th ofNovember 1912, prepared students for the Cambridge University examination inMathematics, religion Anglican.

7.     Julius Goldstein, born on the 22nd of February1901, Musician, taught Music, religion Jewish.

8.     Eva Graetz, born on the 2nd of June 1916,qualified in March 1936 in Berlin, taught Crafts, religion Jewish.

9.     Dr.Margot Gutmann, Studienrat, born on the 19th of December 1903,qualified in 1928 in Munich, taught Greek, Latin, German and History, religionJewish

10.   Marie Haendler, born on the 1st of August 1902,qualified in Breslau and taught in the primary school, religion Jewish.

11.   Arthur Heckscher, Studienrat, born on the 27th of April 1885,qualified in 1909 in Berlin, employed in the public service since 1911, taughtMathematics, Physics and Chemistry, religion Jewish.

12.   Hildegard Heilbronn, born on the 4th ofApril 1909, qualified in 1934 in Berlin, taught French, English and Spanish inthe middle school, religion Jewish.

13.   Dr.Julian Hirsch, Studienrat, born on the 19th of March 1883,qualified in March 1906, he worked in the public service since 1910, taughtEnglish, French and German, religion Jewish.

14.   Marjorie van Hollick, born on the 30th ofJune 1881, taught Geography and other subjects for the Cambridge UniversityExamination, religion Anglican.

15.   Alice Kirchner, born on the 9th ofFebruary 1896, qualified as elementary school teacher in 1917 in SaarbrŸckenand worked in the public service from 1924, taught in the elementary school, noreligion.

16.   Dr.Gertrud Klausner, Studienrat, born on the 13th of May 1877,qualified in November 1908 in Berlin and in the public service since 1917,taught German, French and English, religion Jewish.

17.   Ruth Kristella, born on the 15th ofOctober 1910, qualified in February 1931 in Potsdam, taught needlework anddomestic science, religion Protestant,

18.   Erna Kuhn, born on the 29th ofSeptember 1897, qualified in 1920 in Spandau, taught Gymnastics and Sport tothe girls, religion Jewish

19.   Hildegard Kuttner, born on the 31st of May1901, qualified in 1932 in Berlin, taught in the elementary school and workedwith problem children, religion Protestant.

20.   Wolfgang Lennert, born on the 8th ofDecember 1907, qualified in 1935 in Berlin, taught English, Economy andGeography, religion Protestant.

21.   Dr.Kurt Levinstein, Oberstudienrat, born on the 10th of March 1877,qualified in 1900 in Berlin and had been in the public service since 1903,taught German, French and English, religion Jewish.

22.   Dr.Kurt Lewent, Studienrat, born on the 13th of March 1880,qualified in 1906 in Berlin and in the public service since 1908, taughtFrench, English, German and Geography, religion Jewish.

23.   Dr.Kurt Lewin, Studienrat, born on the 5th of August 1892,qualified in 1916 in Berlin and in the public service since 1921, taughtBiology, Zoology, Mathematics, Chemistry, religion Jewish.

24.   Erich Loewenthal, Studienassessor, born on the 11th of May 1893,qualified in 1925, taught French, English and Hebrew, religion Jewish

25.   Dr.Ernst Meissinger, Studienassessor, born on the 5th of March 1910,qualified in 1934 in Frankfurt a.M., in charge of junior boarders, taughtGeography, Economy and Sport, no religion.

26.   Dr.Margot Melchior, Studienassessor, born on the 29th of April 1891,qualified in 1920 in Berlin, taught French, English and German, religionJewish.

27.   Agnes Riegner, born on the 26th ofFebruary 1883, qualified in 1901, taught in the elementary school, religionJewish.

28.   Erich Rubensohn, Studienassessor, born on the 9th of March 1896,qualified in 1920 in Berlin, taught German, French and Spanish, religionJewish.

29.   Lilly Silbermann, born on the 3rd ofAugust 1900, qualified in 1921, in the public service since 1927, taught sport,gymnastics, rowing, and taught in the elementary school, religion Protestant.

30.   Dr.Irma Wertheimer, Studienrätin, born on the 26th of May 1887,qualified in 1911 in Stra§burg, in the public service since 1916, taughtMathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Botany, French and Metalwork, religion Jewish.

31.   Philip Woolley, born on the 6th ofMarch 1912, qualified in Oxford, taught English, History and Christian religionfor the Cambridge University Examination, religion Anglican.

Not included in this list was RabbiDr.Hamburger who gave instructions in the upper school, teaching Jewish Historyand Religion and Hebrew for one term  [17] .This teaching assignment was later taken over by Rabbi Van der Zyl.

The fact that 9 teachers with different religious beliefs were working in the school was in marked contrast to the religious intolerance of the Nazi State. It was Lore Goldschmidt's aim to provide tolerant and loving surroundings for her students, only in this way could they grow into mentally healthy adults. Ursula Auermann wrote:  [18]   "My parents then found this beautiful school, the Goldschmidt Schule, surrounded by a large garden with fruit trees, to the delight of the students when the trees bore apples and pears. As I think back I can recall a few teachers with fond memories. However, the only one I can recall by name is Dr.Lewent, a strict disciplinarian. At first the kids did not like him well, but he was a fair teacher and they got used to him." Eva Graetz, a junior teacher, wrote:  [19]   "I also vividly remember one teachers' meeting re: Zensurenkonferrenz (conference for school reports). We spent at least one hour over one boy who, in all fairness, had not reached the requirements to advance into the next grade. His family was on the verge of leaving the country. That alone could have been the reason for his poor marks. If advanced he would at least have reached the minimum of abgeschlossene Schulbildung (Completed Education): Obersecunda Reife (O-levels). Without that, he would be the equivalent to a dropout when starting a new life! So why not just pass him? His school years were over, anyway. But if he passed, three others were also eligible, who were better off repeating. So, every teacher who had him split rated, i.e. written work, oral work, total marks, was asked to sum it up in his favour. Dr.Lewent, the much feared Lewent, phoned home and asked his son to bring the whole pile of Hefte (exercise books) of that class. He sat in the corner for half an hour, comparing that boys grading, gradually squeezing his grade into a pass without being unfair to his classmates. Dr. Lewent was very strict and very fair. And between us we sent the young man into the unknown with the first degree step of a completed education." Lewent, who had lost a finger and limped from war injuries, often seemed in pain. Eva Isaac-Krieger recalled: [20]  "When I was riding in the New York subway on my way to Hunter College several years later, I offered my seat to a gentleman with a cane. As I got up and he prepared to sit down, he glanced gratefully at me and all of a sudden I said: Dr.Lewent? and he replied: Eva Isaac- Krieger? It was a reunion which only lasted two subway stops but which completely changed my memory of a disciplinarian to one of a gentle, caring individual whose English pronunciation was so foreign that I could not believe that he had been my English teacher correcting my diction only a few years earlier." Herr Bandmann, who among other subjects taught music, had many fans. Marion Sauerbrunn wrote:  [21]  "If I have to name one outstanding gift that the school had given me, it was Herr Bandmann's ability to instil in us a love for music, which has been a source of great joy throughout my entire life." During the first two years of the school, Herr Bandmann was the choirmaster and he introduced members of the school choir to wonderful works. Beethoven's "Die Himmel rŸhmen des Ewigen Ehre", sung in unison, echoing through the school basement, was an event never to be forgotten. Another milestone was the great chorus from Haendel's Judas Maccabeus. Later, Julius Goldstein, a professional musician, took over most of the music teaching. Helga Bujaskowski wrote:  [22] "Bushy haired and enthusiastic, Mr.Julius Goldstein was the sight singing and music dictation teacher. Not sanctioned by him, but certainly influenced by his wonderful musicianship, we formed little singing groups and irreverently used Hebrew class time for skipping through the woods, singing canons and assorted folk songs". Among the many canons that he taught was an edited version of Mozart's 'Bona Nox, bist a rechta Ox' and 'Donna Nobis Pacem'. When the English Examination Centre took on such significance, he introduced the early English canon 'Sumer is icumin in' and songs from Shakespeare's plays 'Oh mistress mine, where are you roaming?' and 'What is love?, tis not hereafter'. In class, he analysed the structure of the symphony with illustrations from Beethoven's first two symphonies, teaching that would never be forgotten.  Arthur Heckscher became the senior mathematics teacher. Hannelore Israelzick wrote in Passages from Berlin: "My form master was Dr.Heckscher, a man of whom I have very fond memories. Ernst Braude was one of my fellow students and during math test we followed the old age practice of copying from the best pupil in the class, who was Ernst Braude. A few days later Dr.Heckscher returned the test to us informing us with a completely dead-pan face that it was most unfortunate, but the whole class had failed the test. Seeing our unbelieving faces, he quietly continued ÒThe reason for the failure of the whole class is due to the fact that Braude made one mistake. Dr.Heckscher also taught physics and chemistry with the same whimsical smile. The author admired his teaching methods and was very fond of him. The other science teacher was Dr.Irma Wertheimer. Hilda Anker wrote  [23] : "A teacher I remember fondly is FraŸlein Wertheimer. She taught me a love of nature. Her subjects were Biology and Botany. I still remember the long AusflŸge (excursions) where we studied trees and flowers first hand. Botany was also a love of my father. We did many of my assignments together. He bought me tulips to show me the structure of flowers. Much of what I treasure now was built on the foundation given me at the Goldschmidt Schule." In the afternoon, Dr.Wertheimer taught metal workshop. Fritz Salinger, then 15 years old, designed and made an outstanding modern brass Chanukah Menora which she photographed (Photo 10), and for her botany class she produced beautiful pictures of flowers. [24]  

Because the Grunewald lay so close it was possible to go for school outings. Dr.Hirsch (Photo 11) took the author's class there and Ruth Kristella with Eva Graetz took the class for a boat ride on the Havel . [25] Dr.Meissinger, who looked after some boarders and taught Geography, was a most popular teacher. Brigitte Frankfurter  [26] reported that, first thing in the morning before breakfast and lessons, he took boarders for a cycle ride and swim in the Grunewaldsee as the use of public pools was forbidden to Jewish children. Gerd Ehrlich wrote:  [27] "Ernst Meissinger became a role model for me and I hold him largely responsible for my choosing a teaching career." Among the language teachers Erich Rubinsohn, who had lost his leg in the World War, retained an acid sense of humour and often spoke in the Berlin dialect. He wrote the most memorable of all the many school poems in dialect:

Loblied auf dieDoktorn  [28]

Gewidmet von

Erich Rubensohn.

Melodie: Vater,Mutter, Schwester, BrŸder

Unsere Doktorn,die is richtig, immerzu treppauf, treppab,

Wie zwee Männer isse tichtig, ihre Jangart is der Trap.

Ueberall is sebeschlagen, allen hat se wat ze sagen.

Doch se bleibttrotz alledem in der Tonart anjenehm.

Ja, det will schonwas bedeiten, sone Schule uffzebaun!

Un der Aerjer mitden Leuten, manchmal is't um mangzehaun.

Lieschen,Lottchen, Ursel, Gretchen, Rudi, Tutta, Minchen, Kätchen,

Wo jehts in dePause hin? Imma bei Frau Doktern rin.

Dabei hat det armeWesen wahrlich doch genug zu tun:

Korrejiern,arbeten, lesen, so jehts ohne Rast un Ruhn,

Konferenzen unDebatten, diese niemals ohne'n Jatten!

Ja, se is, ickmuss jestehn, schon ein richtig Phänomen.

Aba manchmal wirdse hitzig, un det is ooch ze vastehn,

Meistens heiter,oftmal witzig, morgens so von 8 bis 10;

Aba jeht die Uhruff zwelfen, dann kann ihr keen Jott mehr helfen,

Auf dem Vorflursammeln sich MŸtter, MŸtter schauerlich.

Alle ham se wat zeklagen, alle ham se wat ze schrein:

Lea hat'nschwachen Magen: Mein Manfred ist kein Schwein!

Meine JŸngste ist asthmatisch!Hans Georg ist mathematisch!

Wird er? kann er?soll er? Wie? Matric or proficiency?!

Halten Sie meinKind fŸr arisch? Na, ich seh doch fast so aus!

Zwar der Vater istbulgarisch, und, wie ich, aus gutem Haus.

Ich bin selbst ausVenezuela, darum heiss ich Manuela,

Gott, wie ist dasKind begabt! Masern hat er schon gehabt.

So jehts zweejeschlagne Stunden, zwischendurch schrillts Telefon:

Habn Sie IlschensHeft gefunden? Sie verlor es bei Herrn Cohn.

GŸnter ist nochnicht zu Hause! Wann ist morgen grosse Pause?

Schulgeld woll'nSe och von mir? Frau, Sie sind wohl nich von hier.

Doch trots allerMŸhn und Sorgen, die der Tag ihr reichlich bringt,

Immer hofft sieauf ein Morgen, dem die Zukunft heiter winkt.

Und das Lebensteht ihr offen, darim lasst uns mit ihr hoffen,

Mit ihr Wirkennoch und noch!

L e o n o r edreimal hoch, hoch, hoch!!!

(Sorry, translation impossible!)

In July 1937, just after the end ofterm, 8 students sat the "Proficiency in English" examination ofCambridge University for the first time; 7 students passed, 5 with a mark ofgood and 2 with credit. [29]   Thistrue success story ended the school's summer term on a very high note. 

The 1937 summer holiday school 'camp' [30] had again been cunningly arranged by LoreGoldschmidt. It was supervised by Dr.Meissinger together with Ruth Kristellaand Eva Graetz. The school managed to rent a big house in Oberstdorf, the lastvillage in a valley of the Vorarlberg. Oberstdorf belonged to Austria but could be reached from Lake Constancein Germany without a passport making it possible for Jewish children to enjoy apeaceful holiday. It was a magnificent place with beautiful mountains. We wentfor many walks. One unforgettable moment occurred when a huge thunder stormwith much lightening caught us, hikers, high on an alm. The only safe thing todo was to lie quickly on the ground, which for some turned out to be a"cow pat"!

The first big event of the new term, in September 1937, was again the Jewish Sports Carnival which again took place in the Jewish sports grounds in the Grunewald. Some 35 pupils, the top athletes of the Goldschmidt Schule, took part and many prizes were won (Photos 7, 8 and 9). Lore Goldschmidt was of course delighted as school spectators shouted their slogan "Ha, Ho, He, SLG". The importance of the yearly Jewish Sports festival cannot be overestimated, as it established great pride in the athletic ability of Jewish children and acted as counterpropaganda to constant Nazi vilification. Great praise was given to the Sports teachers, Fritz Altmann and Lilly Silbermann who had spent many extra hours preparing students for the event. After the school had joined the Jewish Helvetica Rowing Club, they taught rowing as well. Nothing ever seemed too much for these two teachers and they were much loved.

Firstsign of jealousy

 Once the Dr.Leonore Goldschmidt Schule had becomethe official examination centre for the University of Cambridge, other Jewish schoolsdemanded similar privileges.  [31] In April 1937, the Lessler Schule applied to Oxford University whosent her a positive reply which she  [32] forwarded to the Stadtpräsident of Berlin. On instruction, Gräfeforwarded the Oxford reply internally to the Reichsminister. [33] Onthe 8th of September, two months after the first Proficiency in Englishexamination at the Goldschmidt Schule, Prof. D. HŸbner,  [34] ina letter to the Reichs-undPreussischen Minister fŸr Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung (State Minister ofEducation) stated that he had received applications from other Jewish schools,the Lessler Schule and the Kaliski Schule who wished to be considered an Oxfordor Cambridge Examination Centre. He commented unfavourably on the rivalry. Heturned both requests down with the statement that the Goldschmidt Schule hadbeen granted permission to sit these examinations until Easter 1938, when thematter could be reviewed. In the letter of the 15th of December, see footnote 29below) HŸbner reported to the Reichsminister that no students had reported to the Dorotheen State Schooland, as he had expressed previously, no examination will ever take place there.In contrast, he cited the 7 students who had passed the Proficiency in Englishexamination in June at the Dr.Leonore Goldschmidt Schule. He mentioned that allwere Jews and continued to give some detail about their activities since then.He emphasised that they were all taking further education to facilitate theiremigration. He added that 5 students were ready to sit the Cambridge UniversityO-level examination, or school certificate, and a further 7 students would sitthe Proficiency in English in December. The results would not be availableuntil January or February 1938. As a result of HŸbner's decision, LoreGoldschmidt received direct requests to let students from other schools enterthe examination in her school. In  a reply  [35] writtenon the 22nd of January of 1938, to Dr.Heinrich Selver of the Kaliski Schule,Leonore Goldschmidt explained the conditions under which the Examination Centreoperated, namely that examination papers were issued by Cambridge University toa specific school for a specific student. Relevant information about thisstudent had to be submitted some time earlier. She would be happy to admitpupils from his school provided they were properly prepared. She added:"At the last examination Oberschulrat Prof.Dr.HŸbner was the presiding examiner and took the oralexamination." This remark must refer to the Cambridge UniversityExamination of December 1937,  [36] when threeboys, K.Herzberg, H.Jaffe and C.M.Nomis and two girls, L.Bock and H.Schwab , [37] passed the O level examination; allpassed English Composition, General English Literature, European History,French and German. 2 pupils passed Geography, 3 pupils passed Mathematics and 4passed Additional Mathematics. 2 passed Chemistry, 1 passed Physics and 1passed Physics with Chemistry, altogether a truly remarkable achievement. ToLore, this success justified the immense amount of work that she had undertakenfor her school to become the Cambridge University Examination Centre. TheKaliski Schule accepted the invitation and began preparing some of theirstudents.

[1] Letter from  J.O. Roach to Leonore Goldschmidt, 16/12/1936, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[2] Letters from LG to the Reichsminister, in possession of the author, 29/12/1936

[3]Biographical sketch by Philip Woolley, Passages from Berlin, private publication, 1987

[4] Klamroth memo, 15/1/1937,Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[5] Reichsminister hšheres Schulwesen, 12/2/1937, Copy in possession of the author

[6]Copy, Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, Copy in possession of the author

[7] HŸbner reply to the Reichsminister 19/2/1937, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[8]HŸbner to Leonore Goldschmidt, 3/3/1937, Copy in possession of the author

[9]The Reichsminister was Bernhard Rust, who entered the Nazi Party in 1922

[10] Handwritten memo to the Staatspräsident, Berlin, 25/3/1937, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[11]Reply By Schulrat Prof.Dr.HŸbner to the Reichsminister,2/5/1937, Bundesarchiv. Potsdam

[12] Passages from Berlin, Privatepublication 1987, report by Philip Wolley

[13] Prospectus of GoldschmidtSchule issued 9/37, in possession of the author

[14] Passages from Berlin, Private publication 1987

[15]Fragebogen issued by Nazi government for details schools, 25/5/1937, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[16] Passages from Berlin, Private publication, 1987

[17]Correspondence between LG and Rabbi Hamburger

[18]Passages from Berlin, Private publication, 1987

[19]Passages from Berlin, Private publication, 1987

[20]Passagesfrom Berlin, Private publication, 1987

[21]Passagesfrom Berlin, Private publication, 1987

[22]Passages from Berlin, Privatepublication, 1987

[23]Passagesfrom Berlin, Private publication

[24]Photographs in possession ofthe author

[25]Photographs in possession of the author

[26]Passagesfrom Berlin, Private publication

[27]Passages from Berlin, Privatepublication

[28]Originalin possession of the author, also other poems etc.

[29]Reporton 15/12/1937 from HŸbner to Reichsminister stating these numbers.

[30]Photographsof camp and sports festival in possession of the author

[31]Letter from Jawne College, via Oberschulrat Langenhorst, Cologne to Minister, 15/4/1937

[32] Oxford Local Examination Boardto Toni Lessler, 16/4/1937, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[33] 20/5/1937 letter to Minister30/4/1937, Bundesarchiv Potsdam

[34] Letter from HŸbner, 8/9/1937 tothe Reichsminister, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[35] Letter from L.G. to Dr Heinrich Selver 22/1/1938, Bundesarchiv, Potsdam

[36]Archives of Cambridge University, consulted by the author, see footnote 214

[37]Letter from Cambridge Uni to S.J.Heims, 2/10/1979, in possession of the author

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