In September 1941, Lore accepted a position in Kidderminster, teaching at Clacton County High School which had been evacuated from Essex. Ernst obtained a position as accountant and wages clerk in a small manufacturing business. They rented a semi-detached house which was partially furnished. In 1942, just as the new school year started, Lore became very ill with pneumonia and nearly died. To the chagrin of the local doctors, Dr.Robert Goldschmidt appeared and saved the day. In January 1943, she obtained her first proper teaching position at Tunstall High School, Stoke on Trent. They rented an apartment, 27 Marsh Avenue, Wolstanton, Stoke on Trent and brought some of the furniture out of storage. They finally had a home again.


To become a fully qualified teacher in the UK system, Lore had to take a UK University degree. She registered, as a part time student, with Prof.Dr.C.W.Valentine, Birmingham University, for an M.A.Degree in Education and worked on her thesis:"The Educational Work done by the Wedgewood Family in Stoke on Trent". Ernst found another position as accountant and wages clerk. Slowly, they were able to recover from their financial difficulties which had been made worse as the town of Folkestone, declared bankrupt, asked for payments from each inhabitant to avoid individual bankruptcy.


During their time in Stoke on Trent, the Panzer Division of the German army surrendered at Stalingrad. For the next two years the Russian advance became legendary. But with it emerged the knowledge of the terrible concentration camps and while the end of the war in Europe was a great relief, it brought immense sadness as the following teachers had not survived:

Erich Bandmann,

Arthur and Mrs.Heckscher,

Erich Loewenthal,

Irma Wertheimer,all murdered in concentration camps  

Erich Rubensohn, committed suicide  

Ernst Meissinger,Fritz Altmann, partly Aryan were forced to join the German army and killed.

Ella Goemann/Glover was never found.  

The following of Ernst's relations were murdered in concentration camps:

Aunt: Caroline Goldschmidt

Cousins: Anna Amalie Goldschmidt, Hans Goldschmidt, Elsie Goldschmidt, Richard Goldschmidt, Alice Seligstein, Karl and Sisie Levinger.

Maria Dšrnberger, who had looked after the girl's boarding section.

Children of cousins: Hans Jeremias, Hella Schšnbrunn.

Second cousins: Ernestine Gštz.  

Second cousin: Hans Goldschmidt drowned on the Andorra Star  

The following of Lore's relations were murdered in concentration camps:

Cousins: Martin and Charlotte Just, Bruno Lesser

Second cousin: Herbert Loewy  

Many pupils died in concentration camps or were shot while fleeing.  

Miriam Meyer, a wonderful violinist, survived but never found mental stability again.

Ursula Balemones, a most artistic girl, never recovered her mental stability and committed suicide.

Gertrud No‘l died in an accident  


This article is dedicated to their memory.    



Once the war was over the British government announced that: "In appreciation of the refugees' support toward the British war effort, the government grants them permanent residence and offers them British nationality." On the 18th of May, 1947, Ernst wrote to Pastor Smith (Photo 15):  [1] " Dear Mr.Smith, I can give you the good news that we are British since Friday. That is most important to us and I hope that it will help both in our career. Let me thank you again for your help by signing my application. I shall remain your debtor for all what you have done for us." Ernst then decided to branch out on his own. A member of the Englaender family by marriage, a Mr.Gšritz, had opened a ladies fashion factory in London and Ernst became their agent. He loved being independent, he enjoyed the travel and the customers.  [2]  With his newly-found-wealth, he decided to invite his family, all 5 of us, for a holiday in Llandudno, North Wales, to celebrate his 25th wedding anniversary on the 17th of May 1948. It happened to coincide with the declaration of Independence of the State of Israel and was a truly memorable event. Sadly it proved to be the last time that we were together as the author left for Canada in July 1948.  


In April 1949, Lore obtained a new position with the South West Essex Technical College and Technical High School, London.  [3]   They moved to a large apartment at 79 Aberdare Gardens, London N.W.6. Ernst supervised the move, unpacked all the furniture including the grand piano, something he very much enjoyed. On the 2nd of July, Lore obtained her Master of Arts degree from Birmingham University (Photo 16)  [4] .  On the 15th of August, she qualified for a Bachelor of Arts degree, Second Class Honours in German, from London University. She had taken the course as an External Student.  [5] A photograph with her sitting and Ernst standing behind her was taken at the graduation ceremony. It was to be his last photograph (Photo 16). In September 1949, Oberschulrat HŸbner, reemerged as Professor in the Freie Universität of Berlin and wrote a most interesting testimonial for her.  [6] But her happiness was short lived because on the 21st of December 1949, one month before his 65th birthday, Ernst died. With Dr.Robert Goldschmidt looking after him, he had died quickly of an inoperable cancer.  [7]    


Lore, lonely and again strapped for cash, rented out two rooms. In 1950, with the British Health Service finally established, she was able to undergo an operation on a non-cancerous growth. She had not been able to afford such an operation privately. Her health improved. Once Lore's presence in London became known, old friends from Berlin came to see her, Mrs.Melchior, Dr.Gertrud Schlesinger, Dr.Julian Hirsch among them. Some Goldschmidt relations, who had miraculously survived in Holland, also visited. In 1951, Professor Walter HŸbner paid a visit, he looked very demure. I was in London at the time and questioned my mother as to why she was receiving that "old Nazi" but she replied: "No, he was the one who helped me!" In 1958, he sent her a copy of a Festschrift to celebrate the 80th birthday of Ernst Otto, which he had edited. In 1962, a postcard to 'dear and admired Dr.Goldschmidt' was sent from a holiday in Seeboden including greetings from his wife and daughter. In 1964, he sent the Festschrift (Celebration volume) which colleagues had published for his 80th birthday. He inscribed the volume to her with the words: "In alter Treue" (With constant faithfulness). But the enigma remained. While the CV of his life contained an entry that, in 1923, he became Oberschulrat of Berlin, there was no reference to the Nazis or his involvement with them anywhere in this CV or in the book!  [8]   A more joyful reunion occurred when, in 1952, Philip Wooley walked down Longwall Street, Oxford, where I lived. As a result the old friendship was reestablished  [9]  With the great help of Rechtsanwalt (lawyer) Auerbach, a friend of the late Ernst Goldschmidt, Lore applied for reparations from the West German Government and was awarded both a lump sum and a German teacher's pension, which, as the value of the Deutschmark improved against the UK Pound, became a magnificent source of income. It changed her life to one of great pleasure. She was able to enjoy her apartment, travel, spend money on her family and shower the grandchildren with Ackermann's chocolates.  [10]   Lore's main focus remained on teaching. In 1960, Lore changed to Leyton High School for Girls and taught there until 1967 [11] followed by a two year part time teaching position at the Parliament Hill School. When the authorities terminated this part time appointment, Lore, 72 years old, was most peeved  [12] and registered with London University to take a degree in Russian. [13] Loving both the language and the literature, Lore travelled to the USSR on several occasions. Her hearing and later her vision were much reduced but she kept active until Saturday, the 5th of March, 1983 when she collapsed. She died in hospital the following Monday, the 7th of March.  [14]  


[1] Letter and Certificate of Naturalization in possession of the author, plus photo

[2] Books of detailed transactions in the possession of the author

[3] Testimonial from G.Drewry, headmaster, 13/9/1949

[4] Certificate 26/7/1948 and photo in possession of the author

[5] Document 15/7/1948 from London University, in possession of the author

[6] To whom it may concern, HŸbner to LG, 6/9/1949 in possession of the author

[7] Death Certificate, 21/12/1949 in possession of the author

[8] All these publications in possession of the author

[9] I was looking out of my first floor window when I saw Philip Woolley passing. By the time I reached the road, he was 20m away. I was overcome with joy and kept shouting:" Mister, Mister!"  Wolley turned round as if in a trance, he did not recognise me, as he had last seen me 13 years earlier. We fell into each others arms, the lady who accompanied him, his wife, was of course most astonished!  He was overjoyed to find Lore Goldschmidt again and they remained friends for life. Later photo sent by P.W.

[10] Receipt of reparation. Herr Ackerman, a lawyer, had retrained in Berlin as chocolateer. His magnificent chocolates were not only the joy of the refugee community but of the Queen Mother, Queen Elizabeth.

[11] Leighton High School reference, 2/2/1967, in possession of the author

[12] Parliament Hill School questionnaire and reference, in possession of the author

[13] Certificates of Education, London University, 1970, 1972 in possession of the author

[14] Personal Column, London Times, 9/3/1983

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